Volume 9 Part 1 Article 77: Specific Amino Acids in Some Edible Mushrooms

Volume 9 Part 1 Article 77
Year 1976
Title: Specific Amino Acids in Some Edible Mushrooms
Authors: S. Hatanaka, Y. Niimura, K. Taniguchi, F. Kinoshita and H. Katayama

Abstract:

In addition to the 20 constituents of protein, many amino acids have been described from plants and they are called non-protein amino acids. They are encountered free or, much less frequently, as gamma-glutamylpeptides.

Though some of the non-protein amino acids, such as a-aminoadipic acid, citrulline and pipecolic acid, are known to be the intermediates in the primary nitrogen metabolism, biosynthesis or physiological significance of most of them are still unknown. They exhibit a great variety of chemical structures, but there are also many instances showing structural relationships to protein amino acids.

Fruit-bodies of higher fungi have also been used for the study of nonprotein amino acids and several biologically active ones are known from them. The most interesting examples are tricholomic acid from Tricholoma muscarium (Takemoto and Nakajima, 1964) and ibotenic acid (Takemoto et al., 1964a, b) from Amanita muscaria (Takemoto et al., 1964c) and Amanita pantherina (Takemoto et al., 1964c). They were isolated both as fly killing components by Prof. Takemoto and his co-workers. Interestingly, both these amino acids have a strong flavor (Takemoto, 1966). From the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus and closely related Agaricus hortensis a few gamma-glutamyl compounds are known. Thus, ß-N(gamma- L-glutamyl)-4-hydroxymethyphenylhydrazine (agaritine) (Levenberg, 1961, 1964) from Agaricus bisporus and N-(gamma-L-glutamyl)-4-hydroxyaniline (Jadot et al., 1960) from Agaricus hortensis.

Several years ago we started to study the specific non-protein amino acids in the fruit-bodies of higher fungi which are collected from natural habitats.

We summarize below the experimental results obtained in our laboratory on some edible mushrooms.

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