Volume 16 Part 1 Article 52: Mushroom Flavor Biogenesis in Agaricus bisporus

Volume 16 Part 1 Article 52
Year 2004
Title: Mushroom Flavor Biogenesis in Agaricus bisporus
Authors: E. Combet, K.S. Burton, D.C. Eastwood, G. Griffiths and J. Henderson

Abstract:

The success of the mushroom industry depends on the ability to deliver a high quality product to the market. Quality is defined by color, texture, firmness, maturity and flavor. Mushroom flavor is due mainly to C8 volatile compounds, and especially to the aliphatic alcohol, 1-octen-3-ol, also called ‘mushroom alcohol’. Octenol is derived from an oxygenation step followed by the cleavage of the polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid. Two types of enzyme perform the oxygenation reaction, lipoxygenases (non-heme dioxygenases), which are present in plants, fungi and mammals, and hemedioxygenases, present in mammals (the cyclooxygenase family) and fungi. Though both types of enzyme are candidates to catalyze the reaction, an examination of the enzymic mechanisms and fatty acid chemistry suggests that a heme-dioxygenase is involved in the production of 1-octen-3-ol. Based on the sequences of related genes from plants, mammals and other fungi, degenerate primers were designed in order to isolate genes involved in lipid metabolism in Agaricus bisporus and Gaeumannomyces graminis. The project aims at understanding the relationships between fatty acids, hydroperoxides and flavor compounds, so as to describe the pathway for the mushroom flavor biogenesis.

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