Volume 10 Part 2 Article 52: Cultivation Methods of Paddy Straw Mushrooms in India

Volume 10 Part 2 Article 52
Year 1979
Title: Cultivation Methods of Paddy Straw Mushrooms in India
Author: N. Samajpai

Abstract:

The common paddy straw mushrooms, popularly known as tropical mushrooms, belong to the genus Volvariella. In India six edible species of Volvariella are recorded but cultivation methods have been devised for three of them only, viz., V. esculenta (Mass) Sing., V. diplasia (Berk. & Br) Sing. and V. volvacea (Bull. ex Fr.) Sing. Su and Seth (1940) have first cultivated the paddy straw mushroom, V. diplasia in India but the first scientific cultivation of this species using spawn has been successfully done at Coimbatore by Thomas et al. (1943). Later the other two species, V. esculenta and V. volvacea, have also been introduced for cultivation in this country. Since then several other scientists have successfully tried to cultivate these mushrooms (Asthana, 1947; Rangaswami, 1956; Vasudeva, 1955, 1957; Rath, 1961, 1975; Gupta et al., 1970; Samajpati et al., 1977).

The large scale cultivation of the paddy straw mushrooms have been taken up in Coimbatore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Maharasthra, Mysore, Saurasthra, Madurai, Kanpur, Lucknow, Bhubaneswar, Calcutta, Manipur and Mizorum. Munjal (1975) has discussed in detail the commercial aspects of cultivation of these mushrooms. The paddy straw mushrooms can be grown taking 10-12 crops in a year with artificial heating arrangements during the winter months i.e., November to January.

The season for optimum growth of paddy straw mushrooms is from March to October all over India. During the months of November to January, in the hilly areas artificial heating is necessary to raise the environmental and bed temperature but in the plains, artificial heating can be avoided by the incorporation of Melia azadirachta indica and Tamarindus indicus leaves in alternate layers. The optimum temperature and moisture for the growth of these mushrooms are 35°C and 57-60% humidity.

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