Volume 10 Part 1 Article 60: Resistance of Agaricus Species Other than bisporus to Mushroom Virus Disease

Volume 10 Part 1 Article 60
Year 1979
Title: Resistance of Agaricus Species Other than bisporus to Mushroom Virus Disease
Author: A. van Zaayen

Abstract:

Virus disease is a considerable threat to cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J. Lange) Imbach (figure 1). The disease is caused by three types of virus particle, often in combination: isometric particles 25 nm in diameter, bacilliform particles 19 nm in diameter and 50 nm long (Hollings, 1962), and isometric particles 34 nm in diameter (Dieleman-van Zaayen and Temmink, 1968). Spread of the disease is by viable infected mycelium (Gandy, 1960) and by spores from infected mushrooms (Schisler et al., 1967; Dieleman van Zaayen, 1972a) through anastomosis with healthy mycelium. Sanitary measures that prevent the spread of infected mycelium and spores can prevent or control the disease. General implementation of a list of measures, requiring continuous effort of each grower, considerably reduced crop loss in the Netherlands over some years (Dieleman, van Zaayen, 1972b). Growing virus-resistant mushroom varieties would save much labour and diminish risks. Therefore attempts were made to obtain such varieties. The white species Agaricus bitorquis (Quel.) Sacc. was gathered from nature in 1968. It colonized the common mushroom substrate, i.e., horse manure compost, provided the growing temperatures exceeded those required by A. bisporus (Hasselbach and Mutsers, 1971). In preliminary trials in 1969 a remarkably high tolerance to virus disease was noticed (Doeleman, van Zaayen, 1972b). Breeding with A. bitorquis is described by FRITSCHE (1976).

The present study details the immunity of several varieties of A. bitorquis to mushroom virus disease. Fruiting bodies of this species were grown in inoculated trays and tested for the presence of virus. Inoculum consisted of mycelium and/or spores from virus-infected mushrooms (A. bisporus). Preliminary results of similar tests on varieties of Agaricus arvensis Schaeffer ex Fr. for susceptibility to mushroom virus are also described. Breeding with A. arvensis has just started (Fritsche, 1978)

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