Volume 10 Part 1 Article 12: The Effect of the Environmental Factors on the Growing of Various Strains of Agaricus bisporus

Volume 10 Part 1 Article 12
Year 1979
Title: The Effect of the Environmental Factors on the Growing of Various Strains of Agaricus bisporus
Author: A. Schaffer

Abstract:

In Hungary there is one laboratory which has provided mushroom growers with mushroom spawn for many years. This laboratory has been operated by the Agricultural Co-operative “DUNA” for 10 years. This fact raises an increased demand in making up assortment for the economicalness of the production can considerably be effected by the proper choice of breeding stock.

If we want to offer the growers a strain with appropriate safety, it must be tested for several years. During this selective examination mushroom strains selected for commercial production were firstly tested in growing trials with small plots and with several repetitions under sufficiently controlled environments. The main aspects of the examination during that time were: the characteristic features of the sort (shape of fruit body, colour and quality of the epidermis, one by one or collective appearance, intensity of spawn running, time and quality of the appearance, duration of flushes, quantity of the crops, resistance to diseases and pests).

Of course, these experiments were performed at different times (seasons) and in different places because growing caves at the Agricultural Co-operative “DUNA” and growing rooms at the other mushroom growers are also different – so we should like to select strains which give reliable results under comparatively varied circumstances.

The research laboratory has been operated since 1953 and selection of the sorts and control of breeding stock have been performed since then. During the last ten years a lot of domestic and foreign strains of cultivated Agaricus bisporus were tested according to the main aspects mentioned above. Strains which were selected on the basis of the results of small experimental plots can be used for large scale growing while the various examinations in both small and great plots are continually carried on. Naturally they will be under observation and occasionally control in the future too.

Experimental results of the last ten years supported our experimental observations on the environmental demands of the strains of Agaricus bisporus, respectively on the effect of the environmental conditions on the crop. In Hungary mushroom growing has taken place mostly in cellars (in abandoned caves). The applicable growing technology is largely affected by the available places and cultural conditions. Accordingly till 1968 mushroom growing – and also the mushroom strain selection had taken place in conventional beds (ridges). After modifying our growing technology, we change to the bag system, and the selection of strains and experimental work have been performed on the basis of the new technology. Recently (since 1973) we have had an experimental growing cave (about 1000 m2 growing surface) where strain selection can be carried out under more controlled conditions.

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