Volume 19 Part 1 Article 81
Title: Successful commercial cultivation of morels in China
Author: Tang Jie, He Xiao-Lan, Chen Ying, Peng Wei-Hong, Jiang Lin, Xie Li-Yuan, Huang Zhong-Qian and Gan Bing-Cheng
Morchella (morel) is one of the most prized edible and medical mushrooms in the world. Despite artificial cultivation of morels has been studied for over 100 years, commercial cultivation was still a difficult task. In recent years, the successful commercial cultivation of morels was rapidly developed in China, especially in Sichuan Province. Here we report the commercial cultivation of Morchella importuna and M. sextelata in Sichuan Province. Identification of the cultivated morels were based on morphological characters and molecular evidence of ITS and RPB2 sequences. Both M. importuna and M. sextelata follow the same cultivation procedures and conditions. Firstly, the mycelia were incubated in PDA for 7days at 20°C. Then, mycelia were inoculated on wheat substrate supplemented with wood shavings and soil; and then incubated for about 20 days at 20°C until mycelia fully colonized and sclerotium formed on the surface of substrate. Sclerotium usually appeared after 7-10 days of inoculation. After sclerotium formation, the spawn was then transferred to the field and inoculated in the soil at 10-18°C and 60-80% humidity. Watering was performed when necessary. The primordia were formed about 80-100days after incubation in the field, and mature fruiting bodies were observed about 5-7 days after primordial formation. Mature fruiting bodies of M. importuna reached 7-15 cm in length, and 6-16cm for M. sextelata. M. importuna has conical cap that is olive brown to brown, and its stipe is grayish white, covered with granules; the cap of M. sextelata is conical, reddish brown with brown ridges, and its smooth stipe is pure white. Average yield of M. importuna and M. sextelata was 1200 kg and 1500 kg per acre, respectively. The maximum yield of M. importuna reached to 3048 kg per acre, and 3120 kg for M. sextelata. M. sextelata was less sensitive to temperature rise than M. importuna.