Volume 19 Part 1 Article 51: Identification of key taste compounds for A. bisporus mushrooms (Forestiere®, Heirloom and XXX)

Volume 19 Part 1 Article 51
Year 2016
Title: Identification of key taste compounds for A. bisporus mushrooms (Forestiere®, Heirloom and XXX)
Author: Charlene Connolly, Juan Valverde, Jesus Frias and Catherine Barry-Ryan

Abstract:
Market research indicates that “taste” is the number one category motivator for usage of mushrooms. Taste is the perception of salt, sweet, sour, bitter and umami. The water soluble substances in the mouth responsible for each of these tastes include 5′-nucleotides, amino acids, organic acids, soluble sugars and polyols. These taste metabolites give key information to consumers to allow them to identify and appreciate a food as tasty, nutritious and a source of energy. The overall aim of this industry based project is to obtain new research knowledge of the relationship between the taste composition of industrially produced mushrooms and their contribution to the sensory taste perception.

High Performance Anion Exchange-Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAE-PAD) was used for analysis of sugars/polyols and amino acids. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) for the analysis of 5’-nucleotides and organic acids. 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) was also incorporated as a potential rapid method for the overall identification of taste metabolites in comparison to lengthy chromatography methods. Sensory analysis included panel development and training (11 females and 7 males). Determination of recognition and detection threshold values for mushroom taste metabolites followed ISO Standard (3972:2011). Preparation of artificial mushroom taste recombinants. Omission studies to determine the key compounds for A. bisporus (Forestiere®, Heirloom and XXX) mushrooms.1 Similar work was previously completed for one white A. bisporus mushroom.2

Triangle tests indicated very highly significant taste difference between the aqueous mushroom extract for Forestiere® and the white XXX mushroom. A significant taste difference (p<0.001) was also observed between the Forestiere® mushroom and Heirloom chestnut mushroom. No significant taste difference was seen between the white XXX mushroom and Heirloom chestnut mushroom. The results show that the key metabolites are different for each of the A. bisporus mushroom varieties studied. The key taste compounds for Forestiere® mushrooms were bitter tasting amino acids and 5’-nucleotides. For Heirloom, 5’-nucleotides, umami tasting amino acids and bitter tasting amino acids were found to be significantly important for this mushroom variety. Interestingly, for the white XXX mushroom, the taste panel couldn’t detect a significant taste difference for the omission of 5’-nucleotides. Important key taste compounds contributing to XXX white mushroom were umami, bitter and sweet tasting amino acids. Sour tasting organic acids were a significantly important (p<0.05) group of taste compounds to all three mushroom varieties studied.

This is the most extensive sensory study ever completed for mushrooms to date. The key taste compounds were identified for each mushroom variety. The concentrations whereby the human tongue can detect and describe each of the important taste metabolites were found.

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